The Minor Planet Bulletin

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The Minor Planet Bulletin is the journal for almost all amateurs and even some professionals for publishing asteroid photometry results, including lightcurves, H-G parameters, color indexes, and shape/spin axis models. It is considered to be a refereed journal by the SAO/NASA ADS. All MPB papers are indexed in the ADS.

Print subscriptions are no longer available to individuals. Institutions (e.g., college libraries) can still obtain print copies via a special subscription. See details in MPB 37-4 or contact the editor, Richard Binzel.

Annual voluntary contributions of $5.00 or more in support of the publication are welcome.
Please send a check, drawn on a U.S. bank and payable in U.S. funds, to "Minor Planet Bulletin" and send it to:

Minor Planet Bulletin
c/o Melissa Hayes-Gehrke
UMD Astronomy Department
1113 PSC Bldg 415
College Park, MD 20742

Authors Guide and Word Templates   (v.3.0: updated 2024 February 2)
The ZIP file contains the Authors Guide PDF as well as a "starter" paper in Word 2007+ (DOTX).
Those using Word 97 (DOC/DOT) are encouraged to download OpenOffice and convert their files to the most recent Word format (DOCX).
Please read this updated guide since there are a number of changes from previous guides.
  • A new, optional, table is available for those wanting to include physical and discovery information
    in a more accessible way.
    See the announcement in Minor Planet Bulletin 51-2.
  • The Pts column is no longer required and has been removed from the template for the standard table
    to allow more room for the other columns.
  • The phase column should have only two values: for the first and last date in the range.
    If the phase reaches an extrema between those dates, put an asterisk before the first value. For example,
  • Use semicolons to separate names in the references section. For example:
       Smith, J.J.; Jones, A.A. (2019).
    This also applies if using several references to the same author in the text. For example:
    "This asteroid was observed at three previous apparitions (Jones, 2015; 2017; 2018)..."

Cumulative Index to Volumes 1-45
Cumulative Asteroid Lightcurve Index (Volumes 1 through 51-2)

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Published between    

Issues for the upcoming quarter-year are released on about the 21st of March, June, September, and December. Full issues and individual papers from vol 1 (1973) to present are available via links on this page.

Important: If the ADS bibcode and "Download PDF" links are missing for the latest issue, it is because the ADS has not processed the files. The links will be made available after the ADS processes the files.
If the "Download PDF" link is visible and there is no PDF available, clicking the link will download an arbitrary page. We are working with ADS to make sure all papers are available and, if not, being able to diasable the link. The "Download Full Issue" link does retrieve the correct file.

Vol 1-7 run Jul-Jun. Vol 8-present run Jan-Dec. Only papers indexed in the ADS are included. Earlier volumes often contain more papers than listed here. It's recommended to download the full issue in vol 1-9.

Volume 51 (2024)

Volume 50 (2023)

Volume 49 (2022)

Volume 48 (2021)

Volume 47 (2020)

Volume 46 (2019)

Volume 45 (2018)

Volume 44 (2017)

Volume 43 (2016)

Volume 42 (2015)

Volume 41 (2014)

Volume 40 (2013)

Volume 39 (2012)

Volume 38 (2011)

Volume 37 (2010)

Volume 36 (2009)

Volume 35 (2008)

Volume 34 (2007)

Volume 33 (2006)

Volume 32 (2005)

Volume 31 (2004)

Volume 30 (2003)

Volume 29 (2002)

Volume 28 (2001)

Volume 27 (2000)

Volume 26 (1999)

Volume 25 (1998)

Volume 24 (1997)

Volume 23 (1996)

Volume 22 (1995)

Volume 21 (1994)

Volume 20 (1993)

Volume 19 (1992)

Volume 18 (1991)

Volume 17 (1990)

Volume 16 (1989)

Volume 15 (1988)

Volume 14 (1987)

Volume 13 (1986)

Volume 12 (1985)

Volume 11 (1984)

Volume 10 (1983)

Volume 9 (1982)

Volume 8 (1981)

Volume 7 (1980)

Volumes 6-7 (1979)

Volumes 5-6 (1978)

Volumes 4-5 (1977)

Volumes 3-4 (1976)

Volumes 2-3 (1975)

Volumes 1-2 (1974)

Volume 1 (1973)

Issue 48-4 (2021 Oct-Dec)
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Lightcurve Photometry of Asteroid (15989) 1998 XK39
Pages 327-328
Sani, Idris Abubakar; Offor, Peter; Okere, Raphael; Onyeuwaoma, Nnaemeka; Obi, Ikechukwu; Ofodum, Chukwujekwu; Okere, Bonaventure
2021MPBu...48..327    Download PDF

Lightcurve photometry of the main belt asteroid (15989) 1998 XK39 yielded an estimated period of 5.528 ± 0.006 h and an amplitude of 0.55 ± 0.04 mag.

Observations of 148 Gallia
Pages 328-329
Thomas, Neil B.; Lopez, Patrick R.
2021MPBu...48..328T    Download PDF

Photometric observations of 148 Gallia are reported as the asteroid approached opposition. We conducted 17 observing sessions between 2021 Feb 27 to 2021 Apr 9. This paper provides the full phase-folded lightcurve and reduced magnitude of this asteroid which has a spin period of slightly more than 20 h.

Rotation Period Determination for (13832) 1999 XR13
Pages 330
Marchini, Alessandro; Cavaglioni, Leonardo; Privitera, Chiara Angelica; Papini, Riccardo; Salvaggio, Fabio
2021MPBu...48..330M    Download PDF

Photometric observations of the outer main belt asteroid (13832) 1999 XR13 were conducted in order to determine its synodic rotation period. It revealed to be a very slow rotator with P = 98.53 ± 0.04 h, A = 0.31 ± 0.03 mag.

Lightcurves, Sidereal Rotation Period, Spin Pole, and Convex Model Shape of Koronis Family Member (1443) Ruppina
Pages 331-334
Slivan, Stephen M.
2021MPBu...48..331S    Download PDF

Rotation lightcurves of Koronis asteroid family member (1443) Ruppina were observed during its consecutive apparitions in 2015, 2016, and 2017-18, the latter yielding an improved synodic rotation period of 5.8796 ± 0.0002 h. In combination with the previously published lightcurves recorded in 2007 and 2014 the resulting data set is confirmed to be sufficient to unambiguously determine the sidereal rotation period, and the corresponding results for spin vector and convex model shape are presented.

Lightcurve Analysis of Hilda Asteroids at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2021 February-March
Pages 334-336
Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R.
2021MPBu...48..334W    Download PDF

New CCD photometric observations of the Hilda member 1038 Tuckia were made at the Center for Solar System Studies in 2021 February and March. Analysis of the resulting data indicate that the asteroid may be in nonprincipal axis rotation (NPAR), i.e., tumbling.

Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2021 March - April
Pages 337-340
Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R.
2021MPBu...48..337W    Download PDF

Lightcurves of four near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2021 March through April were analyzed for rotation period, peak-to-peak amplitude, and signs of satellites or tumbling.

Lightcurve Analysis for Six Near-Earth Asteroids
Pages 341-345
Birtwhistle, Peter
2021MPBu...48..341B    Download PDF

Lightcurves and amplitudes for six near-Earth asteroids observed from Great Shefford Observatory during close approaches in 2015 and 2021 are reported: 2015 HO116, 2021 GG11, 2021 HC3, 2021 JR3, 2021 JB6 and 2021 KN2. All are fast or superfast rotators and two appear to show signs of tumbling.

Ultra-Fast Rotators: Results and Recommendations for Observing Strategies
Pages 346-352
Birtwhistle, Peter
2021MPBu...48..346B    Download PDF

Lightcurves and amplitudes for two ultra-fast rotating near-Earth asteroids with rotation periods < 20 s observed from Great Shefford Observatory during close approaches in April 2021 are reported: 2021 GQ10 and 2021 HN. The interpretation of lightcurves where exposure length is likely to be a sizable fraction of the rotation period is discussed. Observing strategy recommendations are made to optimize exposure length in near-real time, maximizing the chance of detecting ultra-fast rotation in small objects.

Serendipitous Asteroids
Pages 352-357
Mieczkowska, Iga; Marciniak, Anna; Hirsch, Roman; Kaminski, Krzysztof; Kaminska, Monika K.; Polinska, Magdalena; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara; Sobkowiak, Krzysztof; Wróblewski, Radoslaw; Zukowski, Kamil; Pakštiene, Erika; Ogloza, Waldemar; Drózdz, Marek
2021MPBu...48..352M    Download PDF

We present here a byproduct of a large photometric survey of slow rotators led since the year 2013. The observations within the campaign sometimes serendipitously registered additional asteroids moving in the same field with the main target. Here we gather all 24 such asteroids, which had strong enough S/N, and also presented any traceable brightness variations, and we estimate their rotation periods and amplitudes. For best covered lightcurves we also present their plots. For ten asteroids there were apparently no previous period determinations. All the lightcurve data for these serendipitous asteroids are now uploaded to ALCDEF for the use in future spin/shape studies.

On Confirmed and Suspected Binary Asteroids Observed at the Center for Solar System Studies
Pages 358-360
Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R.
2021MPBu...48..358W    Download PDF

Using data from observations made at the Center for Solar System Studies from 2021 May to July, we report that minor planets 6009 Yuzuruyoshii and (18503) 1996 PY4 are very likely binary systems. The lightcurves for (18503) changed significantly over the range of observations, including the near disappearance of mutual events by the end of the observing sessions.

Lightcurves and Rotation Periods of 420 Bertholda, 664 Judith, and 2779 Mary
Pages 360-361
Pilcher, Frederick
2021MPBu...48..360P    Download PDF

Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes are found for 420 Bertholda 10.987 ± 0.001 h, 0.32 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 664 Judith 19.305 ± 0.001 h, 0.32 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 2779 Mary 3.583 ± 0.001h, 0.11 ± 0.02 magnitudes.

Photometric Observations of 755 Quintilla and 1132 Hollandia
Pages 362-363
Fauerbach, Michael; Fauerbach, Matthew
2021MPBu...48..362F    Download PDF

Photometric observations of 755 Quintilla and 1132 Hollandia were obtained on four nights 2021 May 15 to 2021 June 21. The following rotational periods were determined: 755 Quintilla: 4.552 ± 0.001 h; 1132 Hollandia: 5.322 ± 0.001 h.

Asteroid Photometry and Lightcurve Analysis at GORA’S Observatories, Part V.
Pages 363-365
Colazo, Milagros; Fornari, César; Wilberger, Aldo; Morales, Mario; Bellocchio, Ezequiel; Pulver, Eduardo; Scotta, Damián; Suárez, Néstor; Melia, Raúl; Santos, Francisco; Mottino, Aldo; Stechina, Ariel; García, Alberto; Chapman, Andrés; Colazo, Carlos
2021MPBu...48..363C    Download PDF

Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes are reported for 153 Hilda, 357 Ninina, 366 Vincentina, 709 Fringilla, and 739 Mandeville.

Determining Lightcurves and Rotational Periods of Four Main Belt Asteriods
Pages 366-367
Teer, Allan
2021MPBu...48..366T    Download PDF

Lightcurves and rotational periods were determined for the following four asteroids: 2394 Nadeev: 6.539 ± 0.001 h; 3717 Thorenia: 4.365 ± 0.001 h; 4700 Carusi: 10.798 ± 0.002 h; and (29032) 2059 T-1: 5.238 ± 0.001 h.

CCD Photometric Observations of Asteroids 2984 Chaucer, (26206) 1997 PJ4, (87035) 2000 KE2, and 2015 NU13
Pages 368-369
Zeigler, Kenneth
2021MPBu...48..368Z    Download PDF

CCD photometric observations of asteroids 2984 Chaucer, (26206) 1997 PJ4, (87035) 2000 KE2, and 2015 NU13 were conducted from the Star Z Research Ranch in South Texas. The rotational period of asteroid 2984 Chaucer is 9.016 ± 0.010 h, with an amplitude of 0.98 mag. The rotational period of asteroid (26206) 1997 PJ4 is 3.293 ± 0.010 h with an amplitude of 0.13 mag. The rotational period of asteroid (87035) 2000 KE2 is 6.14 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude of 0.13 mag. The rotational period of asteroid 2015 NU13 is 2.4 ± 0.1 h, with an amplitude of 0.26 mag.

Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids 1228 Scabiosa and 12016 Green
Pages 370-371
Odden, Caroline; Bingham, Lola; Cordover, Sofia; Darling, Victoria; DiNatale, Amanda; Hsieh, George; Kusaka, Reimi; Lin, Jeremy; Mao, Troy; Marquis, Katherine; Merove, Paulkichna; Mittal, Tanush; Yarynich, Olha
2021MPBu...48..370O    Download PDF

Photometric observations of asteroids 1228 Scabiosa and 12016 Green were made from the Phillips Academy Observatory (PAO) from 2021 March 14 to May 16. The rotational periods and amplitudes were determined to be: 1228 Scabiosa, P = 22.769 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.75 ± 0.02 mag; 12016 Green, P = 4.911 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.52 ± 0.05 mag.

Collaborative Asteroid Photometry from UAI: 2021 April-June
Pages 372-374
Franco, Lorenzo; Marchini, Alessandro; Iozzi, Marco; Scarfi, Giulio; Montigiani, Nico; Mannucci, Massimiliano; Aceti, Pietro; Banfi, Massimo; Mortari, Fabio; Galli, Gianni; Bacci, Paolo; Maestripieri, Martina; Valvasori, Adriano; Guido, Ernesto
2021MPBu...48..372F    Download PDF

Photometric observations of eight asteroids were made in order to acquire lightcurves for shape/spin axis modeling. The synodic period and lightcurve amplitude were found for 81 Terpsichore, 363 Padua, 563 Suleika, 909 Ulla, 929 Algunde, 1048 Feodosia, 3385 Bronnina, 3760 Poutanen

Lightcurves of Twelve Asteroids
Pages 375-380
Dose, Eric V.
2021MPBu...48..375D    Download PDF

We present lightcurves, synodic rotation periods, and G value (H-G) estimates for twelve asteroids, obtained by applying dozens of comparison stars from the ATLAS refcat2 catalog to each working image.

Main-belt Asteroids Observed from CS3: 2021 April-May
Pages 380-387
Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R.; Warner, Brian D.
2021MPBu...48..380S    Download PDF

CCD photometric observations of 11 main-belt asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2021 April-May. In addition, recovered data from 2019 allowed finding lightcurve parameters for 1413 Roucarie. New pole/shape modeling results are presented for 323 Brucia and 1106 Cydonia. The recovered data for 1413 Roucarie did not have an effect on a previously published shape model.

Rotational Period and Lightcurve Determination of 755 Quintilla, 2699 Kalinin, 3523 Arina, 5182 Bray, 5401 Minamioda, 5405 Neverland, (7288) 1991 FE1, and 18418 Ujibe
Pages 388-391
Fauerbach, Michael
2021MPBu...48..388F    Download PDF

Photometric observations of eight main-belt asteroids were obtained on eight nights between 2020 November 17 and 2021 April 11. The following rotational periods were determined: 755 Quintilla: 4.552 ± 0.001 h; 2699 Kalinin: 2.928 ± 0.001 h; 3523 Arina: 2.674 ± 0.001 h; 5182 Bray: 2.89 ± 0.04 h; 5401 Minamioda: 4.388 ± 0.001 h; 5405 Neverland: 3.181 ± 0.001 h; (7288) 1999 FE1: 4.889 ± 0.001 h; 18418 Ujibe: 3.470 ± 0.001 h.

Rotation Period Analysis for Five Asteroids
Pages 391-393
Colazo, Milagros; Santos, Francisco; Fornari, César; Scotta, Damián; Suárez, Néstor; García, Alberto; Morales, Mario; Stechina, Ariel; Martini, Matías; Melia, Raúl; Chapman, Andrés; Bellocchio, Ezequiel; Wilberger, Aldo; Anzola, Marcos; Mottino, Aldo; Colazo, Carlos
2021MPBu...48..391C    Download PDF

Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes are reported for 318 Magdalena, 455 Bruchsalia, 486 Cremona, 503 Evelyn, and 664 Judith.

Lightcurve Analysis for Thirteen Minor Planets
Pages 394-398
Polakis, Tom
2021MPBu...48..394P    Download PDF

Photometric measurements were made for 13 main-belt asteroids, based on CCD observations made from 2021 March through 2021 May. Phased lightcurves were created for nine asteroids, while four did not yield a period solution. All the data have been submitted to the ALCDEF database.

Lightcurve Analysis of L4 and L5 Trojan Asteroids at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2021 April To June
Pages 398-402
Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R.; Warner, Brian D.
2021MPBu...48..398S    Download PDF

Lightcurves for two L5 Jovian Trojan asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2021 April to June. In addition, recovered data from 2017 to 2019 allowed finding nine previously unreported periods and restating three previously reported Trojan rotational periods.

Caveat Emptor: Spurious Spin Vectors from Incorrect Sidereal Periods
Pages 403-405
Slivan, Stephen M.
2021MPBu...48..403S    Download PDF

Spin vector and shape solutions are among the most sophisticated and nuanced analyses that might be undertaken by lightcurve observers who compile measurements from multiple apparitions. Unambiguously determining the correct sidereal period before attempting convex inversion is key, because an incorrect period leads naturally to a spurious spin vector solution. A specific case study for (1443) Ruppina is examined here, with advice on how to recognize an incorrect sidereal period and avoid proceeding with a convex inversion analysis that will be spurious.

Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2021 October-December
Pages 406-410
Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A.M.
2021MPBu...48..406W    Download PDF

We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

Index to Volume 48
Pages 411-413
Valdés Sada; Pedro A.; Binzel, Richard P.
2021MPBu...48..411S    Download PDF

We present an index of the papers appearing in volume 48 (2021) of the Minor Planet Bulletin.

In This Issue
Pages 413-414
Warner, Brian D.; Valdés Sada; Pedro A.
2021MPBu...48..413W    Download PDF

This list gives those asteroids in this issue for which physical observations (excluding astrometric only) were made. This includes lightcurves, color index, and H-G determinations, etc. In some cases, no specific results are reported due to a lack of or poor quality data. The page number is for the first page of the paper mentioning the asteroid. EP is the "go to page" value in the electronic version.

copyright©2017-2022 Brian D. Warner. Funding to support this web site was provided by NASA grant NSSC 80NSSC18K0851 prior to 2021 April.