The Minor Planet Bulletin BULLETIN OF THE MINOR PLANETS SECTION OF THE ASSOCIATION OF LUNAR AND PLANETARY OBSERVERS
Click on image to zoom
The Minor Planet Bulletin is the journal for almost all amateurs and even some professionals for publishing
asteroid photometry results, including lightcurves, H-G parameters, color indexes, and shape/spin axis models.
It is considered to be a refereed journal by the SAO/NASA ADS.
All MPB papers are indexed in the ADS.
Print subscriptions are no longer available to individuals. Institutions (e.g., college libraries) can still
obtain print copies via a special subscription. See details in MPB 37-4 or contact the editor, Richard Binzel.
Annual voluntary contributions of $5.00 or more in support of the publication are welcome.
Please send a check, drawn on a U.S. bank and payable in U.S. funds, to "Minor Planet Bulletin" and send it to:
Minor Planet Bulletin
c/o Melissa Hayes-Gehrke
UMD Astronomy Department
1113 PSC Bldg 415
College Park, MD 20742
Authors Guide and Word Templates
(v.2.9: updated 2019 November 14)
The ZIP file contains the Authors Guide PDF as well as a "starter" paper in Word 97 (DOT) and Word 2007+ (DOTX). Please read this updated guide since there are a number of changes from previous guides.
The Pts column is no longer required and has been removed from the template for the standard table
to allow more room for the other columns.
The phase column should have only two values: for the first and last date in the range.
If the phase reaches an extrema between those dates, put an asterisk before the first value.
Use semicolons to separate names in the references section. For example:
Smith, J.J.; Jones, A.A. (2019).
This also applies if using several references to the same author in the text. For example:
"This asteroid was observed at three previous apparitions (Jones, 2015; 2017; 2018)..."
Issues for the upcoming quarter-year are released on about the 21st of March, June, September, and December.
Full issues and individual papers from vol 1 (1973) to present are available via links on this page.
Important: If the ADS bibcode and "Download PDF" links are missing for the latest issue, it is because the ADS has
not processed the files. The links will be made available after the ADS processes the files.
If the "Download PDF" link is visible and there is no PDF available, clicking the link will download an arbitrary
page. We are working with ADS to make sure all papers are available and, if not, being able to diasable the link.
The "Download Full Issue" link does retrieve the correct file.
Vol 1-7 run Jul-Jun. Vol 8-present run Jan-Dec. Only papers indexed in the ADS are included.
Earlier volumes often contain more papers than listed here. It's recommended to download the
full issue in vol 1-9.
Photometric observations of 148 Gallia are reported as the asteroid approached opposition. We conducted 17 observing sessions between 2021 Feb 27 to 2021 Apr 9. This paper provides the full phase-folded lightcurve and reduced magnitude of this asteroid which has a spin period of slightly more than 20 h.
Rotation Period Determination for (13832) 1999 XR13
Photometric observations of the outer main belt asteroid (13832) 1999 XR13 were conducted in order to determine its synodic rotation period. It revealed to be a very slow rotator with P = 98.53 ± 0.04 h, A = 0.31 ± 0.03 mag.
Lightcurves, Sidereal Rotation Period, Spin Pole, and Convex Model Shape of Koronis Family Member (1443) Ruppina
Rotation lightcurves of Koronis asteroid family member (1443) Ruppina were observed during its consecutive apparitions in 2015, 2016, and 2017-18, the latter yielding an improved synodic rotation period of 5.8796 ± 0.0002 h. In combination with the previously published lightcurves recorded in 2007 and 2014 the resulting data set is confirmed to be sufficient to unambiguously determine the sidereal rotation period, and the corresponding results for spin vector and convex model shape are presented.
Lightcurve Analysis of Hilda Asteroids at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2021 February-March
New CCD photometric observations of the Hilda member 1038 Tuckia were made at the Center for Solar System Studies in 2021 February and March. Analysis of the resulting data indicate that the asteroid may be in nonprincipal axis rotation (NPAR), i.e., tumbling.
Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2021 March - April
Lightcurves of four near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2021 March through April were analyzed for rotation period, peak-to-peak amplitude, and signs of satellites or tumbling.
Lightcurves and amplitudes for six near-Earth asteroids observed from Great Shefford Observatory during close approaches in 2015 and 2021 are reported: 2015 HO116, 2021 GG11, 2021 HC3, 2021 JR3, 2021 JB6 and 2021 KN2. All are fast or superfast rotators and two appear to show signs of tumbling.
Ultra-Fast Rotators: Results and Recommendations for Observing Strategies
Lightcurves and amplitudes for two ultra-fast rotating near-Earth asteroids with rotation periods < 20 s observed from Great Shefford Observatory during close approaches in April 2021 are reported: 2021 GQ10 and 2021 HN. The interpretation of lightcurves where exposure length is likely to be a sizable fraction of the rotation period is discussed. Observing strategy recommendations are made to optimize exposure length in near-real time, maximizing the chance of detecting ultra-fast rotation in small objects.
We present here a byproduct of a large photometric survey of slow rotators led since the year 2013. The observations within the campaign sometimes serendipitously registered additional asteroids moving in the same field with the main target. Here we gather all 24 such asteroids, which had strong enough S/N, and also presented any traceable brightness variations, and we estimate their rotation periods and amplitudes. For best covered lightcurves we also present their plots. For ten asteroids there were apparently no previous period determinations. All the lightcurve data for these serendipitous asteroids are now uploaded to ALCDEF for the use in future spin/shape studies.
On Confirmed and Suspected Binary Asteroids Observed at the Center for Solar System Studies
Using data from observations made at the Center for Solar System Studies from 2021 May to July, we report that minor planets 6009 Yuzuruyoshii and (18503) 1996 PY4 are very likely binary systems. The lightcurves for (18503) changed significantly over the range of observations, including the near disappearance of mutual events by the end of the observing sessions.
Lightcurves and Rotation Periods of 420 Bertholda, 664 Judith, and 2779 Mary
Photometric observations of 755 Quintilla and 1132 Hollandia were obtained on four nights 2021 May 15 to 2021 June 21. The following rotational periods were determined: 755 Quintilla: 4.552 ± 0.001 h; 1132 Hollandia: 5.322 ± 0.001 h.
Asteroid Photometry and Lightcurve Analysis at GORA’S Observatories, Part V.
Lightcurves and rotational periods were determined for the following four asteroids: 2394 Nadeev: 6.539 ± 0.001 h; 3717 Thorenia: 4.365 ± 0.001 h; 4700 Carusi: 10.798 ± 0.002 h; and (29032) 2059 T-1: 5.238 ± 0.001 h.
CCD Photometric Observations of Asteroids 2984 Chaucer, (26206) 1997 PJ4, (87035) 2000 KE2, and 2015 NU13
CCD photometric observations of asteroids 2984 Chaucer, (26206) 1997 PJ4, (87035) 2000 KE2, and 2015 NU13 were conducted from the Star Z Research Ranch in South Texas. The rotational period of asteroid 2984 Chaucer is 9.016 ± 0.010 h, with an amplitude of 0.98 mag. The rotational period of asteroid (26206) 1997 PJ4 is 3.293 ± 0.010 h with an amplitude of 0.13 mag. The rotational period of asteroid (87035) 2000 KE2 is 6.14 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude of 0.13 mag. The rotational period of asteroid 2015 NU13 is 2.4 ± 0.1 h, with an amplitude of 0.26 mag.
Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids 1228 Scabiosa and 12016 Green
Photometric observations of asteroids 1228 Scabiosa and 12016 Green were made from the Phillips Academy Observatory (PAO) from 2021 March 14 to May 16. The rotational periods and amplitudes were determined to be: 1228 Scabiosa, P = 22.769 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.75 ± 0.02 mag; 12016 Green, P = 4.911 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.52 ± 0.05 mag.
Collaborative Asteroid Photometry from UAI: 2021 April-June
Photometric observations of eight asteroids were made in order to acquire lightcurves for shape/spin axis modeling. The synodic period and lightcurve amplitude were found for 81 Terpsichore, 363 Padua, 563 Suleika, 909 Ulla, 929 Algunde, 1048 Feodosia, 3385 Bronnina, 3760 Poutanen
We present lightcurves, synodic rotation periods, and G value (H-G) estimates for twelve asteroids, obtained by applying dozens of comparison stars from the ATLAS refcat2 catalog to each working image.
Main-belt Asteroids Observed from CS3: 2021 April-May
CCD photometric observations of 11 main-belt asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2021 April-May. In addition, recovered data from 2019 allowed finding lightcurve parameters for 1413 Roucarie. New pole/shape modeling results are presented for 323 Brucia and 1106 Cydonia. The recovered data for 1413 Roucarie did not have an effect on a previously published shape model.
Rotational Period and Lightcurve Determination of 755 Quintilla, 2699 Kalinin, 3523 Arina, 5182 Bray, 5401 Minamioda, 5405 Neverland, (7288) 1991 FE1, and 18418 Ujibe
Photometric measurements were made for 13 main-belt asteroids, based on CCD observations made from 2021 March through 2021 May. Phased lightcurves were created for nine asteroids, while four did not yield a period solution. All the data have been submitted to the ALCDEF database.
Lightcurve Analysis of L4 and L5 Trojan Asteroids at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2021 April To June
Lightcurves for two L5 Jovian Trojan asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2021 April to June. In addition, recovered data from 2017 to 2019 allowed finding nine previously unreported periods and restating three previously reported Trojan rotational periods.
Caveat Emptor: Spurious Spin Vectors from Incorrect Sidereal Periods
Spin vector and shape solutions are among the most sophisticated and nuanced analyses that might be undertaken by lightcurve observers who compile measurements from multiple apparitions. Unambiguously determining the correct sidereal period before attempting convex inversion is key, because an incorrect period leads naturally to a spurious spin vector solution. A specific case study for (1443) Ruppina is examined here, with advice on how to recognize an incorrect sidereal period and avoid proceeding with a convex inversion analysis that will be spurious.
We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.
This list gives those asteroids in this issue for which physical observations (excluding astrometric only) were made. This includes lightcurves, color index, and H-G determinations, etc. In some cases, no specific results are reported due to a lack of or poor quality data. The page number is for the first page of the paper mentioning the asteroid. EP is the "go to page" value in the electronic version.